19-23. John’s testimony: negative and positive
a. Not the Christ
b. Not Elijah – i.e. not actually Elijah, but type of Elijah: camel-hair tunic and leather belt – Matt. 3:4 cp. 2 Kings 1;8. cp. Malachi 4:5 – Elijah sent before the Day of the Lord.
c. Not the Prophet (Deut. 18) – like Moses
answers become progressively shorter.

John the Baptist claims to fulfil Isaiah 40:3 – all will see glory of the Lord.

24-28. John’s baptism of Jesus

24-25. Expectation that Christ, Elijah and/or Prophet would baptise. What did baptism mean then?

26-27. A non sequitur; an anacoluthon? What’s the connection of water baptism by John with the greater one coming, as yet unrevealed?

28. On the other side of the Jordan: a new entry into the Holy Land.

29-34. JtB’s testimony about Jesus: the lamb of God.
29. Lamb of God: Passover lamb? Sacrificial lamb of Isaiah 53? Yes. Maybe even scapegoat?

30. Older always has primacy; ancestors are given greater respect than descendants.

32-33. Spirit came down and remained. Isaiah 61:1 – the section Jesus preached on in his sermon in Nazareth. In OT, spirit on judges, prophets, workmen, kings – but not permanently. With Jesus, the Spirit remains.

34. JtB’s complete testimony.

35-42. JtB gave testimony so people will believe. His role has ended, but the testimony and its effects carry on: JtB testifies about Jesus to his disciples: they follow Jesus. JtB’s disciples testify about Jesus to others, they follow Jesus.

43-50. Jesus finds Philip. Philip seen in Gospel as the one who introduces others to Jesus: Nathaniel, the Greeks. First reference to Jesus finding someone. Later on, he finds other people: the invalid at Bethesda Pool (who doesn’t trust in him?), and the man born blind (who trusts in him).

Jesus words to Nathaniel testify to who Jesus is. Nathaniel believes.
49. Nathaniel’s testimony: You are the Son of God; King of Israel. The second title explains the first.

50-51. Jacob’s ladder (probably a ziggurat). Jesus is the ladder: the way to heaven.